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Brazil: Market Profile

Picture: Brazil factsheet
Picture: Brazil factsheet

1. Overview

Following a strong recession and an economic crisis fuelled by falling commodity prices, Brazil has started to see the beginning of a slow recovery. Brazil’s ability to carry out much needed fiscal reforms at all levels of government will determine whether investor confidence increases going forward. Restoring fiscal sustainability is the most pressing economic challenge for Brazil. To address the dynamics of unsustainable debt, the government has enacted Constitutional Amendment 95/2016, which limits the rise of public spending.

Sources: World Bank, Fitch Solutions

2. Major Economic/Political Events and Upcoming Elections

August 2016
Senators voted to remove President Rousseff from office. Michel Temer was subsequently sworn in to serve the rest of her term to January 1, 2019.

December 2016
Senate approved 20-year government austerity reforms aimed at restoring economic health to Brazil.

October 2018
Far-right candidate Jair Bolsonaro won presidential election over Workers' Party candidate with 55% of the vote.

Sources: BBC country profile – Timeline, Fitch Solutions Political Risk Analysis

3. Major Economic Indicators

Graph: Brazil real GDP and inflation
Graph: Brazil real GDP and inflation
Graph: Brazil GDP by sector (2017)
Graph: Brazil GDP by sector (2017)
Graph: Brazil unemployment rate
Graph: Brazil unemployment rate
Graph: Brazil current account balance
Graph: Brazil current account balance

e = estimate, f = forecast
Sources: International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: October 5, 2018

4. External Trade

4.1 Merchandise Trade

Graph: Brazil merchandise trade
Graph: Brazil merchandise trade

Source: WTO
Date last reviewed: October 5, 2018

Graph: Brazil major export commodities (2017)
Graph: Brazil major export commodities (2017)
Graph: Brazil major export markets (2017)
Graph: Brazil major export markets (2017)
Graph: Brazil major import commodities (2017)
Graph: Brazil major import commodities (2017)
Graph: Brazil major import markets (2017)
Graph: Brazil major import markets (2017)

Sources: Trade Map, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: October 30, 2018

4.2 Trade in Services

Graph: Brazil trade in services
Graph: Brazil trade in services

Source: WTO
Date last reviewed: October 5, 2018

5. Trade Policies

  • Brazil has been a WTO member since January 1, 1995 and a member of GATT since July 30, 1948. Brazil's maximum bound tariff rates at the WTO are set much higher than the average tariff, at 35% for industrial products and 55% for agricultural products. This allows the government considerable scope to adjust tariff rates in order to protect domestic industries and manage prices, causing significant uncertainty for Brazil-based firms reliant on intermediate inputs.

  • Brazil is a member of regional customs union MERCOSUR, along with Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela (though the latter is currently suspended), which facilitates trade with these countries through the removal of tariff and non-tariff barriers and creates common external tariffs for imports to all five members. There are also free trade agreements (FTAs) in place between MERCOSUR and Bolivia, Chile, India, Israel and Peru, while negotiations are ongoing with other free trade blocs and customs unions, including the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the EU, with the latter particularly expected to move ahead in the second half of 2018. These agreements will help to ease the process of exporting and importing and aid further diversification of trade partners, with the EU providing an important market for Brazilian exports.

  • Brazil imposes significant duties on imports, which average 7.8% (2017), the fourth-highest figure regionally out of 20 states in Central and South America. Although a common external tariff is applied by virtue of Brazil's membership of the MERCOSUR customs union, a number of significant exemptions are permitted, which allows the government to set variable (and in most cases higher) import tariffs. Agricultural products face the highest import tariffs, while vital commodities which are required for the basic functioning of the economy, including refined oil, gas and coal are not subject to customs duties. There are also non-tariff barriers to imports which can take the form of limited entry via specified ports, high maritime transport costs, restricted storage, or special processing requirements.

  • Import transactions in Brazil are subject to regulation, authorisation and inspection by the Ministry of Finance’s Federal Revenue Secretariat (SRF) and the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade (MDIC)’s Foreign Trade Secretariat (SECEX). To obtain such an authorisation, the importer must follow import procedures, which are currently conducted electronically by means of the Integrated System for International Trade (Sistema Integrado de Comércio Exterior), known as the SISCOMEX – a computerised system through which customs clearance and import licensing operations are processed. Enrolment is automatic upon the execution of the company’s first import transaction. Such a registration will enable the company to directly operate within the SISCOMEX system. Once registered with SECEX, an importer must obtain an import licence for certain goods prior to the shipment of the goods. Such a licence may be obtained through SISCOMEX. There are three types of import licences – exempt, automatic and non-automatic. Most goods are exempt from import licensing requirements. However, importation of some products, such as spectacles and toys, currently requires import licences. The process and procedure of import licence application, however, are very time-consuming and involve lots of paperwork. Delays in granting of import licences have been widely experienced. Aside from duties and taxes, certain specific products must comply with applicable standards and certification requirements as required by the relevant national regulatory agency.

  • Apart from registration and licensing, Brazil applies import duties as well as a wide range of indirect taxes on imports. Import duties are Brazil’s primary instrument to regulate imports. As a MERCOSUR member, Brazil utilises the MERCOSUR Common Nomenclature (NCM) classification, which is consistent with the Harmonised System (HS) classification. In general, the customs value of goods is determined on a cost, insurance and freight (CIF) basis. Most imports from non-MERCOSUR members are subject to MERCOSUR’s Common External Tariff (CET) which ranges from zero to 35%. Brazil adopted a July 2015 decision by the Common Market Council to extend the mechanism that allows MERCOSUR countries to have a national list of exceptions to the CET through December 31, 2021. The new mechanism is limited to a maximum of 100 tariff lines at the eight-digit level, down from 200 tariff lines under the mechanism that expired at the end of 2015.

  • The Brazilian government applies additional federal and state-level taxes to imports which considerably increase the costs of inputs. The complicated tax regime, which can vary widely by state, causes difficulties for businesses importing goods, particularly if they are based in multiple locations. Therefore, over and above import duties, products imported and/or circulated in Brazil are essentially subject to Industrial Product Tax (IPI), Merchandise Circulation Tax (ICMS), Social Integration Tax (PIS) and Social Contribution Tax (COFINS). The IPI is a federal tax levied on most domestic and imported manufactured products. The IPI rates range between 5% and 35%, and the same rates apply for domestically produced and imported goods. On the other hand, ICMS is a state government VAT applicable to both imports and domestic products. ICMS rates range from zero to 25%, but are generally levied at a rate of 18%. In addition, social contributions are levied at the federal level. They include the contribution for the PIS and the COFINS. These contributions are levied at a combined rate of 9.25%. All these duties and taxes are levied ad valorem on the CIF value of the imports on an accumulative basis.

  • In November 2004, Brazil granted market economy status to China for purposes of anti-dumping (AD) and countervailing (CV) duty investigations. This means that cost and pricing structures in the Chinese market are regarded as reliable and used for calculating dumping margins. As it now stands, Brazil applies no CV measures on imports from the Chinese mainland or Hong Kong, but several AD measures on imports from the mainland, including vacuum flasks, table fans, loudspeakers, garlics, eyeglass frames, padlocks, footwear, hairbrushes, ballpoint pens, porcelain/glass tableware, tyres for cars, motorcycles, bicycles and trucks and cutlery, as well as pre-sensitised offset aluminium printing plates from both the Chinese mainland and Hong Kong.

  • Regarding exchange control, the Brazilian Central Bank does not impose any limit on the amount of currency bought by Brazilian importers. In fact, the regulation establishes that any individual or company can buy or sell foreign currency, or transfer national currency to any country, with no amount limit, for any licit business transaction, in accordance with the Brazilian tax legislation.

  • On October 17, 2014, the Brazilian government ratified the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, which is an international treaty promoting the harmonisation of rights and obligations by the parties in contracts for international sales made by companies located in different countries. Decree 8327/2014 adopts this agreement with the aim to provide greater legal certainty and predictability on international transactions, which may result in a reduction of cumbersome litigation and associated costs for companies that are involved in international trade.

  • In 2018, the Brazilian government (of President Michel Temer) was trying to introduce reforms to liberalise the economy, consolidate government finances, reduce labour market regulation and open up trade, but faced headwinds from public, trade union and political opposition and was running out of time before the next election in October 2018. In terms of trade openness, plans to reduce protectionist measures on maritime transportation will remove one of the final barriers to an FTA between MERCOSUR and the EU, which could be finalised by end-2018. This will open up a huge market for Brazilian exports and provide a boost to growth.

Sources: WTO - Trade Policy Review, Fitch Solutions

6. Trade Agreement

6.1 Trade Updates

In May 2018, Singapore and Brazil started initial discussions on an FTA between Singapore and the four-nation MERCOSUR. Singapore and Brazil signed a comprehensive bilateral Avoidance of Double Taxation Agreement (DTA), as part of the ongoing effort to further facilitate bilateral trade and investment cooperation.

6.2 Multinational Trade Agreements

Active

  1. MERCOSUR: A Regional Customs Union with Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela (the latter remained suspended in May 2018). The MERCOSUR agreement facilitates trade with these neighbouring countries through the removal of tariff and non-tariff barriers. In particular, Argentina and Uruguay are key trade partners of Brazil. The customs union is still in the process of being fully implemented, however, with some significant exceptions to the common external tariff in individual countries and double-application of import tariffs on goods imported to one member and consequently moved into another. Bolivia is in the process of becoming a full member. MERCOSUR encompasses approximately 75% of South America’s GDP and is one of the world’s largest economic blocs.

  2. MERCOSUR-Israel: In December 2007, after almost two years of negotiations, MERCOSUR member states and Israel signed an agreement that establishes a free trade area. This agreement reduces barriers to foster trade, but the impact is limited, given the small trade volume between the two countries.

  3. MERCOSUR-SACU: An agreement on goods with the Southern African Customs Union (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and eSwatini – formerly Swaziland) that came into force on April 1, 2016.

  4. MERCOSUR-Mexico: An agreement on goods that came into force on December 28, 2016.

  5. MERCOSUR-Egypt: An agreement on goods that came into force on September 1, 2017.

  6. MERCOSUR-Associate Members: The FTA between MERCOSUR and associate members such as Chile and Peru also facilitates regional trade and is especially beneficial for trade with Chile, one of Brazil's top trade partners. However, Mercosur's associate members – Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Suriname – do not enjoy full voting rights or complete access to markets.

  7. MERCOSUR-India Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA): The PTA between MERCOSUR and India entered into force on June 1, 2009. India is an important trade partner for Brazil, accounting for approximately 2% of Brazil’s imports and purchasing 2.1% of Brazil’s exports in 2017. India is expected to grow faster than top trade partner China over the medium term, creating even greater opportunities for Brazilian exporters.

Under Negotiation

  1. MERCOSUR-EU: The two trade blocs are negotiating a trade pact, which aims to provide a boost to trade flows with important export markets in the EU and help to stimulate new trade and investment opportunities. Talks between the two blocs are moving forward and agreement over remaining issues, including Brazil's maritime transport policy, is expected in 2018, allowing the deal to be finalised. The deal will be particularly beneficial for automotive manufacturers.

  2. CARICOM-MERCOSUR: This trade pact is under negotiation, however, progress has been slow. This agreement is set to ease the trade process and help Brazil diversify trade partners, but trade flows with Caribbean countries are limited and there is little potential for significant expansion.

Sources: WTO Regional Trade Agreements database, Fitch Solutions

7. Investment Policy

7.1 Foreign Direct Investment

Graph: Brazil FDI stock
Graph: Brazil FDI stock
Graph: Brazil FDI flow
Graph: Brazil FDI flow

Source: UNCTAD
Date last reviewed: October 5, 2018

7.2 Foreign Direct Investment Policy

  1. The Brazil trade and investment promotion agency Apex-Brasil works to attract FDI and promote Brazilian products abroad. To develop the strategic priority sectors such as automotive, renewable energies and environmental solutions, life sciences, oil and gas and infrastructure, the Brazilian government offers numerous tax incentives at the municipal, state and federal level. Most of them are granted upon the submission of a project indicating the minimum invested amount, addressing job creation and other relevant matters.

  2. A major aim of incentive programmes is to entice investment in Brazil's underdeveloped regions, particularly in the northern and central areas of the country. Two development agencies have been created to serve the Northeast and Amazon regions (SUDENE and SUDAM respectively), with a licence to offer benefits for new investment. These include a 75% income tax reduction, valid for 10 years, for investment in priority sectors, and value-added tax (VAT) exemptions offered on a case-by-case basis.

  3. In general, the government has a favourable attitude towards foreign investment and free trade, and foreign and local investors are treated equally under national legislation in most circumstances. All foreign investments must be registered with the Central Bank of Brazil in order to guarantee the payments of dividends and interest, and the repatriation of capital. The government has introduced a number of incentives in order to encourage FDI, which vary according to the region and the industry in question. One of the major advantages for investors is the availability of credit from the National Bank of Economic and Social Development (BNDES), which is one of the largest development banks in the world and offers attractive financing options such as low-cost loans to both domestic and foreign investors alike. There are also a wide range of sector-specific incentives which offer tax exemptions, reductions and credits for the automotive, IT and telecommunications industries, among others.

  4. Brazil is a highly diversified economy and one of the largest consumer markets globally. To foster the competitiveness of Brazilian companies by promoting the internationalisation of their businesses and the attraction of foreign direct investments, Brazil focuses on investments that will contribute to the development of technological innovations and new business models, strengthen industrial supply chains, have a direct impact on national job creation and improve the volume and diversity of Brazilian exports.

  5. Brazil has a history of interventionism in foreign investment and international trade that makes for an unpredictable regulatory regime, meaning that investing in Brazil may be profitable, but it is also subject to significant policy risk, onerous red tape and high levels of taxation. For example, with a strong currency choking off growth and exports in 2011-2012, the government imposed several restrictions on foreign investment into Brazil in an effort to slow capital inflows. This included higher taxes on foreign investment in local fixed income and other financial instruments, and restrictions on local deposit accounts, as well as higher tariffs on imports.

  6. Congressional approval is required for all large-scale land purchases, and foreign ownership of agricultural land is restricted to 25% of the land area of a given municipal district. Foreign nationals from a single country may own no more than 10% of agricultural land in a single district. Reforms under consideration may lift these restrictions as Brazil attempts to expand its Agribusiness sector and open to foreign investors, but a bill to reverse the ban was delayed throughout 2017 and still requires congressional approval.

  7. There are few foreign ownership restrictions remaining, especially since the cap on civil aviation was lifted in April 2017, allowing 100% foreign ownership of airlines.

  8. The only major restrictions now in place are on newspaper and television broadcasting, in which foreign ownership is capped at 30%, but this will not pose a major barrier to most foreign investors seeking to enter the Brazilian market.

  9. The state still plays an active role in several major industries. For instance, national oil company Petrobras retains a dominant presence in the hydrocarbons industry, hindering foreign participation in the sector. Reforms enacted in October 2016 will allow greater foreign involvement, as the requirement for the company to hold a 30% stake in an exploration of 'pre-salt' oil fields has been removed, though it still has a 30-day first-refusal period on any new project.

Sources: WTO – Trade Policy Review, Fitch Solutions

7.3 Free Trade Zones and Investment Incentives

Free Trade Zone/Incentive ProgrammeMain Incentives Available
Zona Franca de ManausBrazil’s oldest trade zone, the Manaus Free Trade Zone (FTZ), is among the largest and most extensively developed FTZs in Latin America.

- 75% income tax reduction
- Lower import duties
- Exemption from the tax on industrial goods
FTZs in Tabatinga, Boa Vista, Macapa, Santana, and Guajara-MirimSuspended import and industrial goods taxes

Sources: Apex-Brasil, Fitch Solutions

8. Taxation – 2018

  • Value Added Tax: Between 10% and 15%
  • Corporate Income Tax: 34%

Sources: PwC Tax summaries 2018, Fitch Solutions

8.1 Important Updates to Taxation Information

Corporate income tax is charged at the same flat rate for both resident and non-resident entities, at 15%, which on the surface does not appear particularly onerous. However, the total profit tax rate is considerably higher for most businesses, as it also includes a mandatory social security tax of 9% and a 10% surcharge on taxable income above the BRL240,000 threshold. Consequently, the total corporate income tax burden amounts to 34% of profits, the fourth-highest figure regionally. Profits of branches of foreign corporations are taxable at the normal rates applicable to Brazilian legal entities.

8.2 Business Taxes

Type of TaxTax Rate and Base
Corporate Income Tax (CIT)
34% (composed of CIT at the rate of 25% and social contributions (CSLL) at the rate of 9%)
Corporate taxpayers with annual taxable income in excess of BRL240,00010% surchage on the annual taxable income in addition to CIT
CSLLAll legal entities are generally subject to CSLL at the rate of 9% (except for financial institutions, private insurance, as well as certain other prescribed entities, which are taxed at the rate of 20%), which is not deductible for IRPJ purposes. The tax base is the profit before income tax, after some adjustments.
Capital Gains Tax15% on capital gains between BRL0-BRL5 million

17.5% on capital gains between BRL5 million-BRL10 million

20% on capital gains between BRL10 million-BRL30 million

22.5% on capital gains above BRL30 million

25% on capital gains paid to non-residents in low-tax jurisdictions
Withholding Tax15% on interest (20% on interest paid to non-residents in low-tax jurisdictions)

15% on royalties (20% on royalties paid to non-residents in low-tax jurisdictions
Contribution for intervention in the economic domain (CIDE)10% on royalties and technical and administrative service payments
Social security contributions20% on gross salaries
Payroll Tax8.8% on gross salaries
Employees' Severance Inde millionity Fund (FGTS)8% on gross salaries
IPIRates are defined by the product's tariff code (normally around 5% to 15%, but in certain cases ranging to over 300%) and essential products will attract lower tax rates.
VAT on Sales and certain Services (ICMS)VAT is collected in the state of São Paulo at an 18% rate. Certain products can attract a higher rate (usually 25%) or a lower rate (in most cases, 12%)
ICMS due on interstate sales of goods to non-ICMS taxpayersICMS is collected by most states at internal rates ranging from 17% to 19% (some products attract a lower/higher rate). Special rates apply to interstate sales, which will be equivalent to 4%, 7%, or 12%, depending on the location of the supplier and client, as well as whether the goods are imported, have a certain content of imported inputs, or are domestically sourced.
Municipal Service Tax (ISS)2-5% on income from services
A Municipal Property Tax (IPTU) levied annually based on the fair market value of property in urban areasIn the municipality of São Paulo, the basic IPTU rate is 1% for residential properties or 1.5% for commercial properties.
Import Tax (II) /customs dutyThe rates vary according to the product's tariff code based on MERCOSUR Harmonised System (NCM/SH), usually ranging from 10% to 20% (there are some exceptions, but the maximum consolidated rate is 35%).
COFINS7.6% on gross income
PIS1.65% on gross income
PIS and COFINS on imports11.75% combined rate on imported goods (For the import of certain goods listed in the legislation, an additional 1% for COFINS is also applicable)

9.25% combined rate on imported services

Source: PwC Tax Summaries 2018
Date last reviewed: October 30, 2018

9. Foreign Worker Requirements

9.1 Foreign Worker Permits

Importing foreign workers remains somewhat difficult due to bureaucratic obligations which must be met in order to obtain work permits and residence visas, as well as quotas imposed on the employment of foreigners. Employers in Brazil must apply for authorisation to recruit foreign workers from the Ministry of Labour, with both temporary (service contract) and permanent visas available. The application must include a copy of the foreign worker's passport, proof of address, curriculum vitae, and supporting qualifications documents. Once the application is granted, the worker is only approved for employment with the specified company, and once the contract has ended or they change jobs, they will be required to submit a new work permit application. Residence permits for foreign workers are subject to certain conditions, including the economic activity in which they may be engaged, the type of business they may establish, and the region in which they may live.

9.2 Foreign Worker Quotas

Companies employing three or more workers may have a maximum of a third of their workforce comprising foreigners, and they must not be paid more than a third of the total payroll. Foreign workers with technical skills which are lacking in the Brazilian labour market are exempted from this quota. Nonetheless, this adds to the difficulties faced by businesses needing to employ highly skilled labour, as these workers continue to be imported from abroad.

Sources: Government sources (Brazil Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Fitch Solutions

10. Risks

10.1 Sovereign Credit Ratings


Rating (Outlook)Rating Date
Moody's
Ba2 (stable)
09/04/2018
Standard & Poor'sBB- (stable)
11/01/2018
Fitch Ratings
BB- (stable)01/08/2018

Sources: Moody's, Standard & Poor's, Fitch Ratings

10.2 Competitiveness and Efficiency Indicators


World Ranking
201620172018
Ease of Doing Business Index
121/189123/190125/190
Ease of Paying Taxes Index
178/189181/190184/190
Logistics Performance Index
55/160N/A56/160
Corruption Perception Index
79/17696/180N/A
IMD World Competitiveness57/6161/6360/63

Sources: World Bank, IMD, Transparency International

10.3 Fitch Solutions Risk Indices


World Ranking
201620172018
Economic Risk Index Rank59/202
Short-Term Economic Risk Score
49.455.658.8
Long-Term Economic Risk Score60.762.262.8
Political Risk Index Rank78/202
Short-Term Political Risk Score
59.257.552.9
Long-Term Political Risk Score66.568.968.9
Operational Risk Index Rank110/201
Operational Risk Score51.048.546.8

Source: Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: October 30, 2018

10.4 Fitch Solutions Risk Summary

ECONOMIC RISK
Brazil faces a weak growth outlook in the medium term. Uncertainty over reforms will keep investment subdued over the coming quarters, weighing on growth. That said, a cyclical recovery is expected to pull the economy out of recession. Inflation has decelerated, interest rates are falling and the currency has stabilised in recent months, supporting an improvement in Brazil's economic risk profile.

OPERATIONAL RISK
As one of the largest economies in the world, with considerable opportunities for development in key sectors, Brazil holds huge appeal to foreign investors. Brazil's appeal as an investment destination is supported by its large labour pool and domestic consumption potential. However, the country's economic potential continues to be constrained by a difficult operating environment, characterised by complex regulatory and legal systems, high levels of government intervention in the economy, an inadequate logistics network, and exorbitant labour costs. Brazil's huge investment potential means many companies are willing to overcome these substantial obstacles, but structural economic and legal reforms will be necessary before the country is able to offer a stable, welcoming and open operating environment.

Source: Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: October 30, 2018

10.5 Fitch Solutions Political and Economic Risk Indices

Graph: Brazil short term political risk index
Graph: Brazil short term political risk index
Graph: Brazil long term political risk index
Graph: Brazil long term political risk index
Graph: Brazil short term economic risk index
Graph: Brazil short term economic risk index
Graph: Brazil long term economic risk index
Graph: Brazil long term economic risk index

100 = Lowest risk; 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Economic and Political Risk Indices
Date last reviewed: October 8, 2018

10.6 Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index


Operational RiskLabour Market RiskTrade and Investment RiskLogistics RiskCrime and Security Risk
Brazil Score46.846.746.350.743.6
Central and South America Average44.948.245.547.139.0
Central and South America Position (out of 20)9
12
9
8
7
Latin America Average47.950.249.445.146.7
Latin America Position (out of 42)2630
291124
Global Average49.649.749.9
49.149.8
Global Position (out of 201)110119
12090
115

100 = Lowest risk; 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index

Graph: Brazil vs global and regional averages
Graph: Brazil vs global and regional averages
Country
Operational Risk Index
Labour Market Risk Index
Trade and Investment Risk IndexLogistics Risk IndexCrime and Security Risk Index
Chile64.161.367.762.764.7
Panama54.847.160.067.144.9
Uruguay54.048.751.155.261.1
Costa Rica53.249.860.253.249.7
Mexico51.458.658.657.7
30.7
Peru49.159.752.947.136.8
Colombia49.054.456.950.1
34.6
Argentina46.951.439.050.646.7
Brazil46.846.746.350.743.6
Ecuador45.654.036.552.040.0
El Salvador41.742.045.351.028.3
Paraguay40.1
41.845.736.6
36.3
Nicaragua38.7
40.637.037.239.9
Guatemala38.3
41.845.541.324.6
Honduras37.338.047.139.424.6
Bolivia35.542.429.537.832.2
Venezuela28.844.119.931.919.2
Regional Averages45.648.447.048.338.7
Emerging Markets Averages46.848.047.545.746.1
Global Markets Averages49.649.749.949.149.8

100 = Lowest risk; 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index
Date last reviewed: October 8, 2018

11. Hong Kong Connection

11.1 Hong Kong’s Trade with Brazil

Graph: Major export commodities to Brazil (2017)
Graph: Major export commodities to Brazil (2017)
Graph: Major import commodities from Brazil (2017)
Graph: Major import commodities from Brazil (2017)

Note: Graph shows the main Hong Kong imports from/exports to Brazil (by consignment)
Date last reviewed: October 30, 2018

Graph: Merchandise exports to Brazil
Graph: Merchandise exports to Brazil
Graph: Merchandise imports from Brazil
Graph: Merchandise imports from Brazil

Note: Graph shows the main Hong Kong imports from/exports to Brazil (by consignment)
Exchange Rate HK$/US$, average
7.76 (2013)
7.75 (2014)
7.75 (2015)
7.76 (2016)
7.79 (2017)
Source: Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: October 8, 2018


2017
Growth rate (%)
Number of Brazilian residents visiting Hong Kong50,0472.9

Source: Hong Kong Tourism Board


2017
Growth rate (%)
Number of Latin American residents visiting Hong Kong195,8541.8

Source: Hong Kong Tourism Board
Data last reviewed: August 21, 2018

11.2 Commercial Presence in Hong Kong


2016
Growth rate (%)
Number of Brazilian companies in Hong KongN/A
N/A
- Regional headquarters
- Regional offices
- Local offices


11.3
Treaties and agreements between Hong Kong and Brazil

In March 2018, Invest Hong Kong (Invest HK) and Apex-Brazil signed an MoU in Sao Paulo aimed at enhancing mutual co-operation in generating more direct investment between the two regions. The MoU was signed by the Invest HK director-general of investment promotion Stephen Phillips and the president of Apex-Brasil, Government of Brazil, Roberto Jaguaribe. The MoU provides a framework to enhance the close relationship of HK and Brazil by further promoting both inward and outward investment in the two jurisdictions.

Source: Government websites

11.4 Chamber of Commerce (or Related Organisations) in Hong Kong

Consulate General of Brazil in Hong Kong
Address: Rooms 2014-2021, 20/F, Sun Hung Kai Centre, 30 Harbour Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong
Email: consulate@brazil.org.hk
Tel: (852) 2525 7002
Fax: (852) 2877 2813

Source: Consulate General of Brazil in Hong Kong

11.5 Visa Requirements for Hong Kong Residents

A tourist visa is not required for Hong Kong residents for a stay up to 90 days.

Source: Consulate General of Brazil in Hong Kong

Content provided by Picture: Fitch Solutions – BMI Research