21 Sept 2018
Russia: Market Profile
- Picture: Russia factsheet
- Graph: Russia real GDP and inflation
- Graph: Russia GDP by sector (2017)
- Graph: Russia unemployment rate
- Graph: Russia current account balance
- Graph: Russia merchandise trade
- Graph: Russia major export commodities (2017)
- Graph: Russia major export markets (2017)
- Graph: Russia major import commodities (2017)
- Graph: Russia major import markets (2017)
- Graph: Russia trade in services
- Graph: Russia FDI stock
- Graph: Russia FDI flow
- Graph: Russia short term political risk index
- Graph: Russia long term political risk index
- Graph: Russia short term economic risk index
- Graph: Russia long term economic risk index
- Graph: Russia vs global and regional averages
- Graph: Major export commodities to Russia (2017)
- Graph: Major import commodities from Russia (2017)
- Graph: Merchandise exports to Russia
- Graph: Merchandise imports from Russia
Amid recovered oil prices, macro stabilisation, and improved business and consumer confidence, Russia’s economy is expected to keep growing at a tepid pace. However, a return to solid growth will need private investment and a lift in consumer sentiment. Structural reforms designed to bolster investor confidence could greatly enhance long-term growth prospects. These reforms will need to address key constraints to productivity growth, such as the remaining weaknesses in the investment climate, the lack of sufficient competition, the physical and nonphysical barriers to infrastructure connectivity, the relatively low innovation capacity of firms, and the mismatch between available skills and those demanded by the labour market.
Source: World Bank, Fitch Solutions
2. Major Economic/Political Events and Upcoming Elections
Parliamentary elections: The ruling United Russia party increased its majority, with the remaining seats won by other pro-Putin parties.
Vladimir Putin inaugurated for fourth term as president after beating minor candidates in the March election.
Source: BBC country profile – Timeline, Fitch Solutions
3. Major Economic Indicators
e = estimate, f = forecast
Source: International Monetary Fund, World Bank, Fitch Solutions
4. External Trade
4.1 Merchandise Trade
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018
Source: Trade Map, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: August 24, 2018
4.2 Trade in Services
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018
5. Trade Policies
- Russia and Ukraine signed a programme of economic cooperation in 2011, before the Maidan revolution. The document was planned for implementation by 2020 and provides for enlarging free trade and mutual protection of investments, creating a system of payment and settlement operations, and ensuring free movement of citizens. However, in Q118, Kiev announced the cancellation of its economic cooperation agreement with Moscow, marking a further decline in interstate relations.
- In March 2018, officials from Iran, Kazakhstan and Russia reached an agreement on a trilateral memorandum of understanding that sets the stage for broader wheat trading. Iranian private millers are not allowed to use domestic wheat for flour exports at present, so the proposed deal includes the import of 100,000 tonnes of Russian wheat every month for private millers in Iran. In February, Tehran was in discussions with Russia on finalising the wheat import deal that would allow it to increase flour exports to Baghdad and other new regional export markets. Negotiations on the trilateral trade agreement were led by the Eurasian Economic Commission and this will help to increase and diversify Russia's export base.
- In Q118, negotiations on the creation of a free-trade zone between the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) and Iran were ironed out, according to statements made by a Russian government official. Russian Presidential Aide Yuri Ushakov announced on April 2, 2018 that negotiations for a free trade zone agreement between the EEU and Iran had been settled and the deal could likely be signed by the end of May 2018. EEU countries, including Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia, have been working toward a free trade area with Iran since 2015.
- The broader concern within Russia's trade profile is the limited diversification away from high reliance on primary sector output. Investors will be dissuaded by the lingering obstacles to trade that stem from the country's stalled transition from a centrally-planned to a free-market economy. Although Russia became a member of the WTO in 2012, it continues to implement policies and duties which restrict trade freedom and add to the difficulties faced by exporters and importers. While the Russian government at all levels offers moderately transparent policies, actual implementation can be inconsistent. Moreover, Russia's import substitution programme often leads to burdensome regulations that can give domestic producers a financial advantage over foreign competitors.
- Russia's trade openness remains encumbered by tight protectionist measures. The average tariff rate remains the second-highest regionally, at 6.3%, driven by the levying of considerable duties on imports of animal products (which average 23.1%), beverages and tobacco (22.1%), clothing (11.7%), transport equipment (8.9%) and manufactures (8.4%). The lowest tariffs are applied to cotton (0.0%) and petroleum (5.0%). Russia's failure to fully commit to WTO guidelines is a feature of its unpredictable trade policies.
- Any import or export transaction equal to or over the value of USD50,000 requires a 'deal passport' authorised by a Russian bank, through which the payment will be processed. Although there are generally no problems with obtaining deal passports, this adds to the bureaucratic obstacles faced by businesses engaged in international trade.
- Import VAT is payable to customs upon importation of goods. The tax base for import VAT is generally the customs value of the imported goods, including excise duties. Either the 18% or 10% VAT rate may apply upon the import of goods to Russia, depending on the specifics of the goods. Import VAT may generally be claimed for recovery by the importer, provided that the established requirements for such recovery are met.
- The government's import substitution policies, such as the Food Security Doctrine, cause significant uncertainty for businesses and may result in quotas or increased duties on imports.
- There are various items that fall under the import substitution regime, with certain items of machinery being restricted for import into Russia - such as coal mining machinery - where a special duty rate applies.
- In July 2014, sanctions were enacted in a coordinated manner by the EU, the US, Canada, and other allies and partners. These sanctions were further strengthened in 2018. These sanctions restrict access to Western financial markets and services for designated Russian state-owned enterprises in the banking, energy and defence sectors. They also place an embargo on exports to Russia of designated high-technology oil exploration and production equipment as well as designated military and dual-use goods. Externally imposed restrictions on imports of Western-borne capital goods have delayed exploration projects in the mining sector especially.
- The Russian government holds significant stockpiles of metal ores and precious metals such as palladium, and restricts the amount of metal that can be exported each year. We believe that high entry barriers and substantial regulation will obstruct new, especially non-Russian companies, from entering the mining industry, which will continue to hinder growth in the sector.
- There are also various export duties and bans imposed on various items, ranging from agricultural products to minerals deemed vital to the domestic economy. Arbitrary tariffs on exports have also been implemented on primary sector commodities in order to regulate prices on the domestic market. For example, in December 2014, a new levy on grain exports was announced, the third such time that exports of grains have been restricted since 2007. This remains in place as of March 2016, having been adjusted several times, although it has been largely ineffective in increasing the availability of wheat to the domestic market and pushing down prices.
- Following the signing of a package of agreements in November 2009 to establish a Customs Union (CU), Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan began using common external tariffs (CET) in early July 2010 and launched the common economic space on January 1, 2012, enabling free movement of goods, services, capital and workforce between the three member states. A treaty aiming for the establishment of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) was later signed on May 29, 2014 by the leaders of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, and came into force on January 1, 2015. Following the signing of respective treaties aiming for Armenia's and Kyrgyzstan's accession to the EAEU on October 9, 2014 and December 23, 2014, Armenia entered the EAEU on January 2, 2015 and Kyrgyzstan acceded on August 12, 2015.
- In August 2016, the Russian government added unwrought lead to the list of goods deemed essential to the internal market. Goods stated on that list may become subject to an export ban to ease internal market conditions. The Russian government has also established a permanent fixed rate of export duties on other ores, such as tungsten ores and concentrates, at 10% of their customs value.
There are also various export duties on ethane, butane and isobutene and restrictions on trade in strategic minerals such as platinum and palladium. Despite rising palladium prices, the Russian government will continue to exert tight control over the amount of palladium supply exiting the country, thus restricting the sector's growth prospects.
Even within the EAEU, there are export licensing requirements on unprocessed precious metals, commodities, waste, scrap, ores and concentrates of precious metals, as well as on untreated mineral stones.
- Import and export duties are calculated as a percentage of the customs value of the goods (ad valorem) or in euros per unit of measurement of the goods, and/or as a combination of these two rates. In most cases, however, ad valorem customs duties are levied as a percentage of the customs value of the goods. For most Hong Kong-type consumer products like garments, household hardware, consumer electronics, timepieces and jewellery, current tariff rates stand at 5%-20%. On the other hand, export duties are set for a few commodities like oil products, copper, nickel and goods made of these materials. Meanwhile, anti-dumping proceedings against Hong Kong have been scarce. As at end-September 2017, Russia did not apply any AD measures on imports originated from Hong Kong.
- The Russian customs tariff classification is based on the Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System (HS). All goods carried across the country’s customs border have to be declared to customs authorities of the Russia Federation. A customs declaration should be submitted within 15 days after the goods are presented to customs authorities. Customs duties, if any, should be paid to the authorities when the goods cross the Russia border.
Source: WTO - Trade Policy Review, Fitch Solutions
6. Trade Agreement
6.1 Trade Updates
Moscow has negotiated some FTAs and trade pacts, notably with other Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) states, Serbia and, most recently, Egypt, which lower barriers to trade with these countries. Russia is also a member of the newly formed EEU, which was launched in 2015, and also comprises Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. This customs union is intended to abolish tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade between members and align customs duties for trade outside the bloc.
6.2 Multinational Trade Agreements
- EEU: The EEU comprise of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia. The EEU, which is based on the Customs Union of Russia, Kazakhstan, and Belarus, was established in 2015. It was later joined by Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. In 2016, Vietnam officially became the first non-regional country to join the bloc. The union is designed to ensure the free movement of goods, services, capital and workers between member countries.
- Egypt-Russia: Egypt is a minor trade partner to Russian exporters at present, though growing gas and high wheat demand in Egypt may provide an opportunity to boost trade flows.
Commonwealth of Independent States FTA (CISFTA), comprising Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Moldova, Armenia and Kazakhstan: CIS states remain key trade partners, but Russia has suspended the application of the FTA for bilateral trade with Ukraine, meaning that barriers have been raised with Russia's largest trade partner within the group.
Source: WTO Regional Trade Agreements database
7. Investment Policy
7.1 Foreign Direct Investment
7.2 Foreign Direct Investment Policy
- To stimulate investment with an aim to diversify its economy, the Russian government is providing a wide array of incentives for investors developing new products, technology in the energy efficiency, nuclear engineering, space technology, medicine and IT industries. Major incentives include profits tax/property/VAT tax exemption, reduced social contribution rates, special customs regime and a 150% deduction of qualifying costs for companies conducting eligible R&D activities to reduce profits tax/increase deferred tax assets.
Other key sectors for development and investment include pharmaceutical and medical, real estate, innovations and technology, infrastructure, aluminium, iron and steel, lead, platinum-group metals, precious metals, nickel, copper, zinc, coal, telecommunications, transportation, agriculture and food and gas.
However in practice, the Russian government continues to impose some restrictions on trade flows and limits on foreign direct investment in certain sectors, while state-owned institutions are prevalent in all areas of the economy.
- FDI is prohibited in some strategic sectors, as detailed in the 2008 Strategic Investment Law, which include exploitation of natural resources, defence, media and industries, in which SOEs have a monopolistic advantage. Any investor seeking to increase shareholdings or gain a controlling stake in any company deemed to be in a strategic sector will require prior government approval, which is not always guaranteed and frequently comes with certain conditions imposed. This prevents large-scale foreign investment in many potentially lucrative sectors, with the law also being arbitrarily applied to some activities that do not initially appear to fall under the description of a strategic sector. This was illustrated in 2012, when internet company Yandex was deemed a strategic asset, limiting foreign ownership in the company. In the extractive industries, government approval is required for foreign ownership above 25%. If a transaction occurs in contravention of the Strategic Investment Law, the companies involved may be subject to harsh penalties, including the complete voiding of the deal.
Another major barrier faced by foreign investors in Russia is the large-scale government presence in the economy through complete or partial ownership of companies in a wide range of sectors. SOEs dominate the market in some industries, notably hydrocarbons (through Gazprom and Rosneft), banking (Sberbank and VTB), and telecommunications (Rostelecom). Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the country began a long and arduous privatisation process which is still ongoing, but the government has maintained an interest in many companies, whether as a minority shareholder or the owner of a 'golden share' (50.1%). Thus, in several instances in which foreign investors have become involved with SOEs, they remain limited to minority shareholding positions. This often leaves them unable to influence company policy and subject to undue control by the board of directors. Competition between private entities and SOEs is also limited in certain sectors where the playing field is tilted in favour of government enterprises.
- Russia’s Strategic Sectors Law (SSL) establishes a list of 45 'strategic' sectors or activities in which purchases of controlling interests by foreign investors must be pre-approved by Russia’s Commission on Control of Foreign Investment. In 2014, the Russian government expanded the list to include companies, investments and transactions. Regulations require Russian government approval for foreign firms to invest in strategic sectors and, in some cases, ban majority foreign ownership. Most government initiatives in 2015 point to a stronger government influence in SOE activities, including placing senior government officials on major SOE boards, dictating the percentage of SOE purchasing that must come from small and medium enterprises, and requiring Russian-made equipment purchases for government-funded projects.
- In addition to a raft of pro-business reforms introduced by Putin since 2012, which have improved the operating environment, there are a number of incentives offered to encourage FDI. These will vary according to the location of the investment, the amount of capital provided and the type of economic activity. Foreign investors are exempted from the effects of unfavourable changes to legislation (for example, tax hikes or new caps on foreign ownership) for a period of seven years, if they hold more than 25% of capital in a company. A major new incentive introduced in 2014 is an income tax break for companies locating in 13 Far Eastern and Siberian regions, which effectively reduces the profit tax rate from the usual 20% levy to 0% for the first five years after initial sales income is received, and to 10% for the following five years. Some regional authorities offer a reduced corporate income tax rate of 15.5%, available for both foreign and national investors.
- The most significant incentives and benefits, however, are offered through the numerous special economic zones (SEZs) that are available throughout the country to investors, divided into four broad categories. These SEZ categories are Industrial, Technology Implementation, Port, and Tourist and Recreation SEZs. These SEZs are all intended to target specific industries, for example shipping and freight transport, hotels and tourist activities, automotive and mechanical engineering, or software and pharmaceuticals. Businesses located in these zones benefit from more efficient bureaucratic procedures, freedom from customs duties, state investment in transport networks, and subsidised expenditure on infrastructure. The government also hopes that SEZs will foster the development of sophisticated industrial clusters, which enhance technological advances and boost economic growth in particular regions.
- Foreign ownership is permitted, with the exception of some sectors designated as strategic. Russia's regulatory environment will continue to restrict foreign investment from entering the country's mining sector. Defence, oil and gas, power, mining, media, transport, and agriculture are key sectors affected. Foreign ownership in air transportation, financial services, insurance, media and agricultural land is also restricted to a maximum of 49% ownership. There are significant barriers to entry facing foreign insurance firms looking to tap into the enormous long-term growth potential of the Russian insurance market. Foreign entities considering entry to or expansion in the Russia financial sector will also need to be mindful of economic sanctions imposed by the US and EU, which potentially restrict operations over the short-to-medium term.
Sources: WTO - Trade Policy Review,The International Trade Administration (ITA), U.S. Department of Commerce
7.3 Free Trade Zones and Investment Incentives
|Free Trade Zone/Incentive Programme||Main Incentives Available|
|25 Special Economic Zones divided between four broad categories: industrial and production zones, technology and innovation zones, tourist and recreation zones, port zones||- Exemption from customs duties and VAT on imports|
- Reduced corporate income tax
- Reduced property tax
- Discounts on infrastructure expenses
- Access to 'One Window' special administrative regime
|Skolkovo Innovation Centre (Moscow) - intended to foster innovation in high-tech manufacturing and research and development||- Exemption from profit tax|
- Exemption from VAT
- Exemption from property tax
- Exemption from customs duties and VAT on imports
- Reduction of social security contributions
|Advanced development zones (ADZ)||In the Russian Far East and Eastern Siberia, there are plans to establish a network of advanced development zones (ADZ) with preferential conditions for non-resource production that is oriented, among other things, to exports. An advanced development zone is an area in a constituent entity of the Russian Federation where, by decision of the Russian government, a special legal regime has been established for entrepreneurial and other types of activity in order to create favourable conditions for investments and accelerated socioeconomic development, as well as comfortable living conditions for the public. The formation of ADZs is regulated by Federal Law of 2014 On Advanced Development Zones in the Russian Federation.|
Source: Fitch Solutions
8. Taxation – 2018
- Value added tax: 18%
- Corporate income tax: 20%
Source: PwC Tax Summaries 2018
8.1 Important Updates to Taxation Information
- The list of VAT-exempt goods and services includes basic banking and insurance services, services provided by financial companies (depositaries, brokers, and some others), educational services provided by certified establishments, sales of certain essential medical equipment, passenger transportation, and certain other socially important services. Effective as of January 1, 2017, a list of services rendered through the internet or other similar electronic networks by foreign suppliers to Russian individuals are subject to Russian VAT.
- The maximum corporate income tax (CIT) rate for all taxpayers in the Russian Federation has been set at 20%. In the period 2017 through 2020, the following allocation proportion applies: 3% of CIT revenues is allocated to the federal budget, whereas 17% is allocated to the budgets of the relevant constituent regions. Individual Russian constituent regions may bring their CIT rates down to 12.5%; thus, the total minimum tax rate may be reduced to 15.5%.
- On January 1, 2019, new changes will be introduced, which will require foreign entities to register for VAT purposes and pay taxes if they provide electronic services to legal entities and individual entrepreneurs. Depending on the particular type of service, either the 18% VAT rate or a VAT exemption may apply. If a foreign supplier is directly involved in settlements for electronic services provided, it would be required to register for tax purposes in Russia and fulfill its Russian VAT obligations (including payment of Russian VAT and filing VAT returns with the tax authorities).
8.2 Business Taxes
|Type of Tax||Tax Rate and Base|
|Corporate Income Tax||Corporate income tax 20% on profits (can be reduced by certain incentives depending on location)|
|Witholding Taxes||13% on dividends paid to residents|
15% on dividends paid to non-residents
Taxable supplies attract VAT at either the standard rate of 10% or the zero rate. Zero rating applies to exports of goods and services and certain charges in relation to the international transport of people and goods.
|Pension Fund Contributions||22% on salaries up to RUB1 million|
Additional 10% on any excess on salaries above RUB1 million
|Dividends||13% on taxable earnings|
|Value Added Tax||18% on sale of goods and services|
|Property Tax||2.2% on book value of property|
|Mineral Resources Extraction Tax||3.8-8%, but generally variable according to the industry and the value of the resource|
Source: PwC Tax Summaries 2018
Date last reviewed: August 24, 2018
9. Foreign Worker Requirements
9.1 Localisation Requirements
Performance requirements, such as job creation or investment minimums, can be imposed as a condition for establishing, maintaining, or expanding an investment. Securing a work permit in Russia is the employer's responsibility and the deadline for the foreign labour requirement falls on May 1, annually.
Companies are informed of how many and which of their applications have been accepted in the following months and not all applications are successful. In 2013, the foreign labour quota for the entire country was 410,126. Some notable changes in Russian immigration policies and practices for 2015 and early 2016 include the decline in the number of HQS work permits being issued and a rise in the number of foreign nationals prohibited from entering Russia.
Presidential Order No. 583 of 28 November 2015 introduced restrictions on employers hiring/employing Turkish nationals.
The prohibition does not apply in the following cases: If, up to and on December 31, 2015, the Turkish nationals were employed or engaged for the provision of services in Russia and had proper work authorisation documents; or if the Turkish national's employer is on the list of employers approved by the Russian government in the relevant Resolution. This Resolution, however, has placed a limit on the number of Turkish nationals that can be employed in Russia by a firm.
9.2 Obtaining Foreign Worker Permits for Skilled Workers
In 2006, in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state programme assisting voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics. Overall, securing a working visa in Russia is both complex and relatively expensive, presenting bureaucratic and cost burdens to investors looking to import foreign labour. Russian immigration authorities operate a visa quota system for foreign workers. Immigration authorities have recently been given powers to revoke quota allocations to employers if they are found to be in breach of Russian labour and tax laws. There are work permit exemptions for employees in a number of fields, and there is a newly introduced work visa category for highly-qualified professionals. This new category speeds things up considerably, as there are no quota restrictions for highly-qualified professionals. To qualify for this permit, foreign specialists must be compensated with no less than RUB2 million per year. The permit can be issued for up to three years.
9.3 Visa/Travel Restrictions
Visas are issued by diplomatic missions or consulates of Russia, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs or the Ministry of Internal Affairs (directly or by proxy). Visas can be single-entry, double-entry or multiple-entry.
Ordinary visas are divided into private, business, tourist, study, work, humanitarian, and entry visas for persons seeking asylum.
Foreign citizens from most CIS countries and those who are permanent or temporary residents of the Russian Federation do not need entry visas.
In spite of a large number of foreign workers arriving in Russia, mainly from the CIS states, the system of attracting them is ineffective. The mechanism of selection of foreign workers from the CIS countries by professions and qualifications does not meet the needs of Russian employers. Most foreign workers' labour contracts are limited to 1 year, which does not contribute to the employers' interest to invest in professional training of migrants.
9.4 Migrant Labour Regulations
There are three types of work visa in Russia: firstly, the single entry visa, which lasts for 90 days and is issued by the Russian consulate on the basis of a work visa invitation; secondly, the multiple entry visa, which is reissued on the basis of a single entry at a local branch of the Russian Federal Migration Service (FMS) and the visa for highly qualified specialists whom earn more RUB2 million per year.
The cost and duration taken to acquire a working visa in Russia varies according to the country of an individual's origin.
If permits are required the complicated and time consuming application process raises costs for employers and there is considerable risk for the employer as the information given in the application is binding.
The application requires details of the position they intend to fill as well as the nationality of the expat. The process can take up to a year and once granted a permit is valid only for the specific job it was issued for and cannot be transferred to different companies or subsidiaries of companies in other regions in Russia.
If the work would require the employee to work in different parts of the country, the application must be completed for every region the employee will work in. In 2010, 'Highly Qualified Specialist' was introduced as a new term in Russian immigration legislation. An HQS is a foreign citizen earning not less than RUB2 million per annum from an employer in Russia. A simplified quota-free one-step application procedure for work permits and visas is established for HQS intending to work in Russia for Russian legal entities or branches of foreign legal entities (but not representative offices).
Such HQS may apply for work permits and work visas valid for three years with the opportunity to extend their validity for subsequent three-year periods, in comparison with one-year work permits and visas received by other foreigners.
10.1 Sovereign Credit Ratings
|Rating (Outlook)||Rating Date|
|Standard & Poor's||BBB (Stable)||23/02/2018|
|Fitch|| BBB- (Positive)||17/08/2018|
Source: Moody's, Standard & Poor's, Fitch Ratings
10.2 Competitiveness and Efficiency Indicators
|Ease of Doing Business Index ||51/189||40/190||35/190|
|Ease of Paying Taxes Index||41/189||38/190||52/190|
|Logistics Performance Index ||99/160||N/A||75/160|
|Corruption Perception Index||131/176||135/180||N/A|
|IMD World Competitiveness||44/63||46/63||45/63|
Source: World Bank, IMD, Transparency International
10.3 Fitch Solutions Risk Indices
|Economic Risk Index Rank||46/202|
|Short-Term Economic Risk Score||58.3||64.4||68.3|
|Long-Term Economic Risk Score||64.7||64.3||66.3|
|Political Risk Index Rank||103/202|
|Short-Term Political Risk Score||66.5||66.5||65.6 |
|Long-Term Political Risk Score||57.4||61.7||61.7|
|Operational Risk Index Rank||68/201|
|Operational Risk Score||56.1||55.2||56.0|
Source: Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: August 24, 2018
10.4 Fitch Solutions Risk Summary
Russia's economic risk index scores compare relatively well to emerging market peers due to low public debt ratios, high FX reserves and a current account surplus. That said, growth drivers will be elusive in the absence of much higher oil prices or a significant ramp up in structural reform momentum, neither of which looks probable in the coming years. The inflexibility of the labour force means that there will be a hit to future economic growth, as labour is not as easily channelled into sectors that need more workers in a 'new' Russian economy. Meanwhile, business investment has been in decline since December 2011, elevated interest rates have hurt the ability for companies to expand, and the FX depreciation has not really helped productivity or growth in non-energy sectors.
Despite access to a large labour market, vast natural resources and robust financial sector, the Russian market remains hamstrung by structural challenges that highlight the slow pace of reform over the years. Businesses operating in the country face risks stemming from high state involvement in the Russian economy, pervasive corruption, an infrastructure deficit and an ageing population. Tepid economic growth and increasingly frosty relations with the West serve to further impair Russia's attractiveness to investors and undermine its business environment. In particular, still-low global oil prices and the imposition of Western sanctions continue to hamstring trade and economic growth, while involvement in the Ukraine and Syria conflicts has heightened security risks and further dampened investor sentiment.
10.5 Fitch Solutions Political & Economic Risk Indices
10.6 Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index
|Operational Risk||Labour Market Risk||Trade and Investment Risk||Logistics Risk||Crime and Security Risk|
|Central and Eastern Europe Average||61.1||55.0||63.4||63.6||62.5|
|Central and Eastern Europe Position (out of 11)||9||1||9||6||10|
|Emerging Europe Average||56.7||54.1||58.4||57.4||56.8|
|Emerging Europe Position (out of 31)||20||3||20||8||25|
|Global Position (out of 201)||68||21||76||45||128|
100 = Lowest risk; 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index
|Country||Operational Risk Index||Labour Market Risk Index||Trade and Investment Risk Index||Logistics Risk Index||Crime and Secruity Risk Index|
|Emerging Markets Averages||46.8||48.0||47.5||45.8||46.0|
|Global Markets Averages||49.7||49.8||50.0||49.3||49.9|
100 = Lowest risk; 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index
11. Hong Kong Connection
11.1 Hong Kong’s Trade with Russia
Exchange Rate HK$/US$, average
Source: Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department, Fitch Solutions
|2017||Growth rate (%)|
|Number of Russian residents visiting Hong Kong||148,098||3.8|
|Number of Russians residing in Hong Kong||N/A||N/A|
Source: Hong Kong Tourism Board
|2017||Growth rate (%)|
|Number of European residents visiting Hong Kong||1,929,824||-0.2|
Source: Hong Kong Tourism Board, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018
11.2 Commercial Presence in Hong Kong
|2016||Growth rate (%)|
|Number of Russian companies in Hong Kong||N/A ||N/A|
|- Regional headquarters|
|- Regional offices|
|- Local offices|
11.3 Treaties and agreements between Hong Kong and Russia
Alongside the Air Services Income Agreement effective since June 2010, Hong Kong signed a Comprehensive Double Taxation Agreement (CDTA) with Russia on January 18, 2016, which entered into force on July 29, 2016. To accommodate greater synergies, Hong Kong and Russia are also in the process of negotiating an Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (IPPA).
China (mainland) and Russia signed an Agreement for the Avoidance of Double Taxation (DTA) on October 13, 2016 and Investment Promotion and Protection Agreements which came into effect on February 12, 2000.
Source: Fitch Solutions
11.4 Chamber of Commerce or Related Organisations in Hong Kong
Russian Business Club Hong Kong
Tel: (852) 3563 7723
Source: Russian Business Club Hong Kong
Russian Consulate General in Hong Kong
Address: Rm 2106-2123, 21/F, Sun Hung Kai Centre, 30 Harbour Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong
Tel: (852) 2877 7188
Source: Consulate of the Russian Federation in Hong Kong
11.5 Visa Requirements for Hong Kong Residents
No visa is required for up to 14 days for permanent residents of the Hong Kong SAR with the valid passport of Hong Kong SAR. Before entering Russia the migration card must be filled in and presented to the migration officer when entering and exiting Russia. The card is also required for migration registration at the place of stay, and must be kept by the foreign national during their stay in Russia.
Source: Visa on Demand