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Vietnam: Market Profile

Major Economic Indicators

Table: Major Economic Indicators of Vietnam
Table: Major Economic Indicators of Vietnam

Latest Development

  • Vietnam’s economy rose 6.7% in 2015, surpassing the target growth rate of 6.2%, with the industry and service sectors growing 9.4% and 6.3% YOY respectively.
  • Consumer price inflation in Vietnam edged up by 1.9% year-on-year (YOY) in April 2016 mainly due to two consecutive price hikes of petrol price as well as an increasing demand for construction materials.
  • In July 2015, Vietnam adopted a “negative list” in its inward investment policy with foreign businesses allowed to operate in all areas except six prohibited sectors.
  • Hong Kong was Vietnam’s six largest source of inward FDI in the first four months of 2016, valued at about US$196 million.
  • Vietnam is part of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area, and it has signed double taxation agreements with over 60 countries/territories including the Chinese mainland and Hong Kong. In February 2016, Vietnam along with 11 other countries including the US and Singapore officially signed the Trans-pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement.
  • Vietnam’s imports grew much faster than exports in 2015, resulting in a trade deficit of US$3.2 billion, with exports rising 8.1% YOY to US$ 162.4 billion while imports surging by 12% at US$ 165.6 billion. 
  • Hong Kong’s exports to Vietnam dropped by 3.7% YOY to US$2.1 billion in the first three  months of 2016, while imports increased by 5.4% to US$1.6 billion over the same period.

Current Economic Situation


Vietnam is the sixth largest economy in the 10-member ASEAN[1] bloc, trailing the Philippines yet followed by Myanmar. Its service, industry and agriculture sectors account for, respectively, 44%, 39% and 17% of GDP. Major industry and service sectors of the country include manufacturing, mining, construction, real estate and finance.

Vietnam’s economy rose 6.7% in 2015, surpassing the government’s GDP growth target of 6.2%, with industry and service sectors growing by 9.4% and 6.3% YOY respectively. In Q1 2016, Vietnam’s GDP increased by 5.5% YOY, mostly driven by a 6.7% growth in the industry & construction sector and a 6% growth in the service sector. For 2016, the IMF expects GDP growth to ease to 6.3%, largely reflecting softer external demand and a severe drought and salinity problem in the Mekong Delta that has affected the Vietnamese agriculture sector.

Following the subdued GDP growth and slower inflation in 2013, Vietnam has pursued an accommodative monetary policy to support growth. The State Bank of Vietnam (SBV) lowered its benchmark interest rate nine times between February 2012 and March 2014 before keeping the rate at current level of 6.5%. In April 2016, Vietnam’s average consumer price inflation rate edged up by 1.9% YOY mainly due to two consecutive price hikes of petrol price as well as an increasing demand for construction materials.

The Vietnamese government has increased minimum wage over the past few years, leading to an average annual growth rate of 18% between 2010 and 2015. It was announced in September 2015 that the minimum wage will be raised by 12.4% from January 2016. This will raise the new monthly wage to about US$155 in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The Minimum Wage Adjustment Road Map to 2020 released by the Ministry of Labour expects the minimum wage in Region One covering both Hanoi and HCMC to rise to around VND4.8 million (US$213) in 2020.

Economic restructuring

In 2013, the Master Plan on Economic Restructuring in 2013-2020 was approved. The Plan focuses on the restructuring of public investment, banks, and state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Through full or partial privatisation, it aims to reduce the number of SOEs by about half to 690 by 2015, and then to 200 by 2020. Regarding the privatisation plans of 432 SOEs, a total of 182 SOEs were privatised in 2015, up from 143 SOEs in 2014, yet falling short of the official target of 289 for the year. One of the country’s largest mobile carriers, MobiFone, is expected to undergo privatisation in 2016, following Vietnam Airlines and Vietnam National Textile and Garment Group (Vinatex).

To accelerate the banking system restructuring, the Vietnamese government has allowed foreign investors to own a bigger share in local banks, in which the shareholding limit for foreign strategic investors has been lifted from 15% to 20% from 2014. In June 2015, it was announced that Vietnam will further loosen its restriction on foreign ownership in public companies by allowing foreign investors to increase their share holdings to 100% in most public Vietnamese companies, with the exception of a few sensitive industries such as banking and defense starting from September 2015.

External trade

In 2015, there was a shift in Vietnam’s terms of trade, with imports exceeding exports for the first time in three years. Exports rose 8.1% to US$162.4 billion while imports surged by 12% to US$165.6 billion, resulting a trade deficit of US$3.2 billion. The import surge was caused by the rise in demand of machinery and production equipment.

Exports of electronic items accounted for 29% of total merchandise exports in 2015. In particular, exports of phones and components rose to US$30.6 billion, up 30% over the year-earlier period, driven by the foreign-invested manufacturing sector. Vietnam’s top export markets in 2015 were the US, the EU, ASEAN, China, Japan and Korea. 

Major imported items in 2015 consisted of machinery, equipment and parts, and electronics, computers and accessories. A large part of its imported capital goods is related to assembling goods for export. China is the largest source of Vietnam’s imports, followed by Korea, ASEAN, Japan, the EU and the US.

Investment Policy

Vietnam seeks to attract investment across a wide range of sectors, with priority given to areas such as infrastructure projects, the manufacture of high-tech products (biotechnology, IT and mechanical engineering), R&D, and education and training. Eligible projects receive investment incentives including lower corporate income tax (CIT), tax cut or exemption, land-rent reduction and import-duty exemption. More information on Vietnam’s investment environment and regulations can be found at the official website of its Foreign Investment Agency (FIA).

In July 2015, Vietnam adopted a “negative list” approach in its investment policy with the aim to further relax its FDI regulations. Under the new rules, foreign businesses are allowed to operate in all areas except for six prohibited sectors, including certain specified drugs and chemicals, and specified wild plants and animals either under local law or the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES). Besides, the list of conditional business sectors was cut from 391 to 267. 

In the wake of the anti-Chinese riots which damaged foreign-invested factories in May 2014, the Vietnamese government announced a series of remedial measures, including tax breaks and land rent exemption, to compensate the affected companies. It is reported that with security conditions enhanced in the industrial zones, firms have resumed operations. Foreign investors’ confidence, once badly affected, has gradually recovered with investors remaining positive on Vietnam’s business environment and economic potential.

Foreign investment

Vietnam’s impressive growth of exports is largely driven by FDI. According to the Ministry of Industry and Trade, the FDI sector accounted for 71% of Vietnam’s total exports and nearly all of its telephones, electronics and computers and components exported in 2015.

In 2015, Vietnam attracted over 2,000 licensed FDI projects with a total registered investment capital of US$15.6 billion, down marginally by 0.4% from 2014. Korea was Vietnam’s largest FDI source, with a registered FDI of US$2.7 billion, followed by Malaysia, Samoa, Japan and the UK. China’s registered FDI in Vietnam amounted to US$665.5 million in 2015.

In 2015, the largest FDI sector in Vietnam was manufacturing and processing, accounting for 67% of total inward FDI, followed by the production and distribution of electricity, gas, hot water and steam, and air conditioners (12%) and real estate (11%).

Table: Vietnam’s FDI Flows
Table: Vietnam’s FDI Flows

Trade Policy

Vietnam became a World Trade Organisation (WTO) member in 2007. While facing fewer restrictions and lower tariffs in export markets, Vietnamese manufacturers also benefit from the improving access to imports of cheaper raw materials and semi-processed inputs as Vietnam's import tariffs drop.

Upon its WTO accession, Vietnam was committed to bound tariff rates on most products ranging from zero to 50%, although tariffs on textiles, cars and motorbikes remain high, with certain sensitive products (such as eggs, tobacco, sugar and salt) subject to tariff quotas (higher duties for quantities exceeding the quotas).

Among other benefits, WTO accession allows Vietnam to take advantage of the phase-out of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, which eliminated quotas on textiles and clothing for WTO partners in 2005.

In 2009, Vietnam allowed foreign investors to operate 100% foreign-owned retail business as per its WTO commitments. Previously, foreign companies had to form joint ventures with local companies if they wanted to enter the retail market.

CAFTA Membership

The China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA), formally established in 2010, is the world’s largest free trade area by population (1.9 billion), with a combined GDP of more than US$7.7 trillion and total trade of US$4.8 trillion. Under CAFTA, Vietnam will eliminate 90% of its tariff lines for goods traded with China by 2015, with the remaining 10%, which cover items on the sensitive list such as textiles, seeing their import tariffs lowered more slowly. Following a surge of 14.6% to US$95.8 billion in 2015, bilateral trade between Vietnam and China grew by 16.5% YOY to reach US$5.8 billion in the first four months of 2016.

Free trade agreements

Vietnam actively pursues regional economic integration through its ASEAN membership, in particular adopting measures in the lead up to the formal launch of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by end-2015. It signed free trade agreements (FTAs) with the Korea and the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) in May 2015 and reached an FTA agreement with the EU in August 2015. Vietnam is of the four ASEAN member countries participating in the TPP arrangement, with the 12 participating Pacific Rim countries[2] signing the trade deal in February 2016, pending for country ratifications. Vietnam is widely considered a major beneficiary of TPP commitments to market opening and liberalisations.

Vietnam has signed double taxation agreement (DTAs) with over 60 countries/territories, including Australia, France, Germany, Japan, Korea and China. Its Comprehensive Double Taxation Agreement with Hong Kong was concluded in 2014 to take effective in 2015. 

Hong Kong's Trade with Vietnam

In the first three months of 2016, Vietnam was the 5th largest export market for Hong Kong. Hong Kong’s total exports to Vietnam dropped by 3.7% YOY to US$2.1 billion. Major export items included telecom equipment & parts (17.2% share), other meat & edible meat offal (fresh, chilled or frozen) (11.7%) and semi-conductors, electronic valves & tubes, etc. (6.8%).

Hong Kong’s imports from Vietnam gained 5.4% YOY to US$1.6 billion in the same period. Major import items included semi-conductors, electronic valves & tubes, etc. (43% share), telecom equipment & parts (24.4%) and footwear (3.7%).

Table: Hong Kong Trade with Vietnam
Table: Hong Kong Trade with Vietnam

Vietnam’s involvement in Hong Kong

Vietnamese residents in Hong Kong reached 5,760 as at April 2016, according to the Immigration Department of Hong Kong. In addition, Vietnamese visitors to Hong Kong totalled 13,488 in the first three months of 2016, increasing by 25.4% YOY.

More Information

More information on the Belt and Road countries’ economic and investment environment, tax and other subjects that are important in considering investment and doing business are available in The Belt and Road Initiative: Country Business Guides.

Related information: Vietnam infographics

[1] ASEAN consists of 10 members: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.

[2] Theses 12 countries include: Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Peru, Singapore, the US, Vietnam, Mexico, Canada and New Zealand.

Content provided by Picture: Winnie Tsui