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South Africa: Market Profile

Picture: South Africa factsheet
Picture: South Africa factsheet

1. Overview

South Africa has made considerable strides toward improving the wellbeing of its citizens since its transition to democracy in the mid-1990s, but progress is slowing as the slow pace of transformation has meant that income inequality remains structurally high. The current administration is acutely aware of the immense challenges it needs to overcome to accelerate progress and build a more inclusive society. Its vision and the priorities it is making to address them are outlined in the 2030 National Development Plan, which comprises the two main strategic goals of eliminating poverty and reducing inequality from 0.69 to 0.60 by 2030.

Source: World Bank, Fitch Solutions

2. Major Economic/Political Events and Upcoming Elections

February 2018
President Zuma resigned under pressure from the governing ANC over corruption charges, which chose veteran trade unionist and businessman Cyril Ramaphosa as his successor.

Source: BBC country profile – Timeline

3. Major Economic Indicators

Graph: South Africa real GDP and inflation
Graph: South Africa real GDP and inflation
Graph: South Africa GDP by sector (2017)
Graph: South Africa GDP by sector (2017)
Graph: South Africa unemployment rate
Graph: South Africa unemployment rate
Graph: South Africa current account balance
Graph: South Africa current account balance

e = estimate, f = forecast
Source: IMF, World Bank, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: August 20, 2018

4. External Trade

4.1 Merchandise Trade

Graph: South Africa merchandise trade
Graph: South Africa merchandise trade

Source: WTO
Date last reviewed: August 20, 2018

Graph: South Africa major export commodities (2017)
Graph: South Africa major export commodities (2017)
Graph: South Africa major export markets (2017)
Graph: South Africa major export markets (2017)
Graph: South Africa major import commodities (2017)
Graph: South Africa major import commodities (2017)
Graph: South Africa major import markets (2017)
Graph: South Africa major import markets (2017)

Source: Trade Map, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

4.2 Trade in Services

Graph: South Africa trade in services
Graph: South Africa trade in services

Source: WTO
Date last reviewed: August 20, 2018

5. Trade Policies

  • South Africa is a member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Imports originated from other WTO members, including Hong Kong and the Chinese mainland, are subject to the country's most-favoured-nation (MFN) tariff rates. In addition to import tariffs, most goods are subject to a value-added tax (VAT), where the standard rate is currently set at 14%. However, VAT on goods imported for use in manufacturing or resale by registered traders can be claimed as an input tax reduction.
  • South Africa may initiate anti-dumping or countervailing investigation and impose duties when unfair trade allegations are substantiated. However, there are no anti-dumping measures against Hong Kong products at present.
  • Customs duties are charged on importation of goods into South Africa at rates ranging between 3% and 45%. In addition, import duties may also include anti-dumping and countervailing duties of up to 150%. No customs duties are charged on trade between South Africa and Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland, as these five countries constitute the Southern African Customs Union.
  • In trying to protect the local poultry industry from lower-cost US and EU chicken parts product exports, South African has imposed additional duties and quotas on both US and EU chicken imports to the country.
  • Excise duty is levied on certain locally manufactured goods as well as their imported equivalents. A specific duty at a pre-determined amount is levied on tobacco and liquor, and an ad valorem duty (calculated as a percentage of price) on certain luxury goods and automobiles. Relief from excise duty is available for exported products and for certain products produced in the course of specified farming, forestry, and (limited) manufacturing activities.
  • Payments of import duties and VAT can be deferred if the goods are put in bonded warehouses. The South African government also relaxed some of the import taxation rules such as removing the requirement for a taxpayer to have a tax invoice prior to claiming an input tax credit.
  • Most goods can be imported into South Africa without a permit, except for certain goods like foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals, second-hand goods, finished machinery and gold. Import permits are usually issued by the Department of Trade and Industry, and are used mainly to collect information rather than to limit trade.

Source: WTO – Trade Policy Review, Fitch Solutions

6. Trade Agreement

6.1 Trade Updates

On June 10, 2016, the EU-SADC EPA was signed, with the SADC members of Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland all party to the agreement. The agreement became the first regional EPA in Africa to be fully operational after Mozambique joined in February 2018.This grants improved market access to EU markets for South Africa (in addition to benefits granted under the Trade, Development and Cooperation Agreement between the EU and South Africa). This improved access to EU markets includes better trading terms for the agriculture and fishery sectors in particular. In 2016, an estimated total 26% of all of South Africa's exports went to the EU. The EU is the Southern African Development Community EPA Group's largest trading partner, with South Africa accounting for the largest part of EU imports to and EU exports from the region. The other six members of the Southern African Development Community region – the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Zambia and Zimbabwe – are negotiating Economic Partnership Agreements with the EU as part of other regional groups, namely Central Africa or Eastern and Southern Africa.

6.2 Multinational Trade Agreements


  1. EU-SADC EPA and the EU – South Africa Trade, Development and Co-operational Agreement – On June 10, 2016, the EU-SADC EPA was signed, with SADC members Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland all party to the agreement. This grants improved market access to EU markets for South Africa (in addition to the benefits granted under the Trade, Development and Cooperation Agreement between the EU and South Africa).

  2. Southern African Customs Union (SACU) – consisting of South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland. Duty-free movement of goods with a common external tariff on goods entering any of the countries from outside the SACU is a key benefit. This has greatly enhanced trade flows between these countries. Namibia and Botswana are two of South Africa's largest regional exporting partners.

  3. Southern African Development Community (SADC) Free Trade Area (Between 12 SADC Member States) – The SADC Free Trade Area (FTA) was achieved in August 2008, when a phased programme of tariff reductions that had commenced in 2001 resulted in the attainment of minimum conditions for the FTA – 85% of intra-regional trade amongst the partner states attained zero duty. While the minimum conditions were met, maximum tariff liberalisation was only attained by January 2012, when the tariff phase down process for sensitive products was completed. For countries falling under the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), this process was completed in January 2007.

  4. Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) – The US is South Africa's second largest exporting partner. Granted by the US to 39 SSA countries (South Africa included). Preferential access to the US market for many South African exports is granted through lower tariffs or no tariffs on some products. Duty-free access to the US market under the combined AGOA/GSP programme stands at approximately 7,000 product tariff lines.

  5. The Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) between the South African Customs Union (SACU) and the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR) – In October 2016 that the Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA) between SACU and the MERCOSUR had been entered into force. MERCOSUR is a full customs union and trading bloc consisting of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. This PTA will offer reciprocal preferential tariff rates on around 1,000 product lines ranging from 10 - 100%. This agreement is very new at present; currently, the Latin American region only accounts for around 1% of South Africa's export revenues and South Africa only imports around 4% of total import products from Latin America as a region.

Under Negotiation

  1. Tripartite Free Trade Agreement (links Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa – COMESA, the South African Development Community – SADC and the East African Community – EAC). While most of South Africa's main African trading partners are already within the SADC area, reducing tariffs between South Africa and other African countries will undoubtedly increase trade flows between South Africa and the rest of the continent. South Africa needs to diversify its main export base in order to reduce its exposure to shifts in external demand from its core export base, which mostly consists of China and other SACU-member states.

  2. The African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA) is a trade agreement between 44 African Union member states with the goal of creating a single market followed by free movement and a single currency union. The AfCFTA was signed in Kigali, Rwanda on March 21, 2018. Signing the Agreement does not yet establish the African Continental Free Trade Area. It will function as an umbrella to which protocols and annexes will be added. Once all documents are concluded and ratified by 22 states, the free trade area will formally exist. Negotiations will continue in 2018 with Phase II, including Competition Policy, Investment and Intellectual Property Rights. A draft shall be submitted for the January 2020 AU Assembly.

Source: WTO Regional Trade Agreements database, Fitch Solutions

7. Investment Policy

7.1 Foreign Direct Investment

Graph: South Africa FDI stock
Graph: South Africa FDI stock
Graph: South Africa FDI flow
Graph: South Africa FDI flow

Source: UNCTAD
Date last reviewed: August 20, 2018

7.2 Foreign Direct Investment Policy

  1. The government of South Africa is generally open to foreign investment as a means to drive economic growth, improve international competitiveness, and access foreign markets. Merger and acquisition activity is more sensitive and requires advance work to answer potential stakeholder concerns.

  2. Since assuming office in February 2018, South Africa’s new president, Cyril Ramaphosa, has committed to improving the investment climate. The early steps he has taken are encouraging, but the challenges are enormous.

  3. Virtually all business sectors are open to foreign investment. Certain sectors require government approval for foreign participation, including energy, mining, banking, insurance, and defence. Excepting those sectors, no government approval is required to invest, and there are few restrictions on the form or extent of foreign investment.

  4. The Department of Trade and Industry's (DTI) Trade and Investment South Africa (TISA) division provides assistance to foreign investors. Recently, they announced a One-Stop Shop for investment support, with offices in Pretoria, Cape Town and Durban, and an online presence at the South African Government website. The DTI most actively courts manufacturing industries in which research indicates the foreign country has a comparative advantage. It also favours manufacturing under a belief that it can be labour intensive, and where suppliers can be developed from local industries.

  5. In February 2014, the DTI introduced a new Special Economic Zones (SEZs) Bill focused on industrial development. The Bill was subsequently passed, and the SEZs are in the process of being created. The SEZs are intended to encompass the IDZs but also provide scope for economic activity beyond export-driven industry to include innovation centres and regional development. The broader SEZ incentives strategy allows for 15% Corporate Tax as opposed to the current 28%, Building Tax Allowance, Employment Tax Incentive, Customs Controlled Area (VAT exemption and duty free), and Accelerated 12i Tax Allowance.

  6. TISA offers information on sectors and industries, consultation on the regulatory environment, facilitation for investment missions, links to joint venture partners, information on incentive packages, assistance with work permits, and logistical support for relocation.

  7. Currently there are no limitations on foreign ownership, although the Private Security Industry Regulation Act (PSIRA) which has passed Parliament and is awaiting presidential signature to become law, has a clause requiring 51% ownership and control by South Africans of companies in the security industry.

  8. In the early 1990s, South Africa entered into Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) with many foreign countries; these governed the foreign investment regime for investors from those countries in South Africa (in terms of offering guarantees in the event of expropriation and recourse to certain dispute resolution mechanisms). However, in 2013 South Africa unilaterally cancelled many of its BITs or expressed that the BITs would not be renewed (mainly with EU members) in order to make changes to the way in which those protections are ensured, while maintaining its right to implement policies to address the country's social and economic requirements and to redress the injustices of the past through its affirmative action policies.

  9. In dealing with the legacy of apartheid, South African laws, policies, and reforms seek to produce economic transformation to increase the economic participation of and opportunities for historically disadvantaged South Africans. The government views its role as the primary driver of development and aims to promote greater industrialization. Government initiatives to accelerate transformation have included tightening labour laws to achieve proportional racial, gender, and disability representation in workplaces, and including performance requirements for government procurement such as equity stakes and localization.

  10. Following the adoption of a resolution at the December 2017 conference of the African National Congress, investors are watching closely how the government will implement land reform initiatives and what Parliament will decide as a result of its review of the constitution and the issue of expropriation of land without compensation.

  11. The government has also changed the process of settling of legal disputes between foreign investors and the South African government. In terms of dispute settlement, the foreign investor must exhaust all domestic remedies before they are entitled to take the matter to an international tribunal. Protection under this legislation for FDI is therefore considerably less than under the old BITs (which do however, remain in force until this legislation is given a promulgation date).

Source: WTO – Trade Policy Review, the International Trade Administration (ITA), US Department of Commerce

7.3 Free Trade Zones and Investment Incentives

Free Trade Zone/Incentive ProgrammeMain Incentives Available
Industrial Development Zones (IDZs), located at Dube Trade Port IDZ - Durban, Coega IDZ; - Port Elizabeth, East London IDZ, Richard's Bay and Saldanha Bay IDZIn 2000, the South African government initiated the Industrial Development Zones (IDZs) programme, which is part of a broader national effort to promote Special Economic Zones, including free ports, free trade zones, IDZs, and sector development zones. Various tax incentives are on offer which differs between the various SEZs and different sectors.

Source: US Department of Commerce, Fitch Solutions

8. Taxation – 2018

  • Value Added Tax: 15%
  • Corporate Income Tax: 28%

Source: PwC Tax Summaries

8.1 Important Updates to Taxation Information

Corporate tax is residence-based in the country, and companies are classed as residents if they have their management headquarters in South Africa or are incorporated there. In South Africa, the corporate income tax rate applicable for corporate income of both resident and non-resident companies for tax years ending between April 1, 2018 and March 31, 2019 is a flat 28%. Small business corporations (i.e. companies with only natural persons as members/owners and with gross income of not more than ZAR20 million are taxed at the following rates:

  • 0% on the first ZAR 78,150 of taxable income
  • 7% on taxable income above ZAR 78,150 but not exceeding ZAR 365,000
  • 21% on taxable income above ZAR 365,000 but not exceeding ZAR 550,000
  • 28% on taxable income exceeding ZAR 550,000

Special CIT rates apply in certain industries, such as mining and long-term insuranceThose companies classified as residents are then taxed on their global incomes. However non-resident companies are not taxed on their non-South African incomes. 

From April 1, 2018, the VAT rate increased from 14% to 15% (the VAT rate was last increased in the early 1990s). It has been proposed that regulations prescribing foreign electronic services subject to VAT be broadened to include cloud computing and other online services.   

A tax on sugar-sweetened beverages, in the form of the Health Promotion Levy on Sugary Beverages, was introduced on April 1, 2018. The base on which the levy is applied is the sugar content of the beverage. The rate of the levy is 2.1 cents per gram for sugar content in excess of 4g/100ml. For powder and liquid concentrates, sugar content is calculated on the total volume of the prepared beverage. 

There are targeted tax breaks available under a scheme is overseen by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). Seeking to promote new business and encourage trade, the tax breaks of 50% or 100% are available for certain approved investments if they are managed through the Strategic Industrial Project (SIP) programme of the DTI.

8.2 Business Taxes

Type of TaxTax Rate and Base
Corporate Tax rates: resident companiesA flat corporate tax rate of 28% applies to all companies and close corporations, with the exception of companies which mine for gold or long-term insurance companies which pay special rates determined by industry-specific scales.
Non-resident companiesBranches of foreign companies operating in South Africa are taxed at a flat rate of 28% and are not liable for dividends tax or any branch's repatriation tax on profits. They are only taxed on their locally-sourced income.
Dividends TaxA dividends tax of 20% is payable, on all dividends declared and paid by resident companies and non-resident companies in relation to shares listed on the JSE and paid to SA residents. This tax, however, is not payable if the beneficial owner of the dividend is an SA resident company, SA retirement fund, or other prescribed exempt person.
Skills Development Levy1% of payroll
VAT/GST (standard)A standard rate of 15% applies as of April 1, 2018.

Date last reviewed: August 20, 2018

9. Foreign Worker Requirements

9.1 Localisation Requirements

Hiring procedures in South Africa are strictly regulated. Various affirmative action policies have been implemented since 1994 to promote the employment of South Africa's black population.

These resulted in the passing of the Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) Act of 2003, for which new codes were introduced in 2015. BBBEE policies are aimed at increasing the participation of previously disadvantaged people in the formal economy in relation to ownership and employee hiring. Companies may undergo a BBBEE audit and obtain a BBBEE score in terms of these codes.

While BBBEE code compliance is voluntary for private companies, these codes are legally binding on state institutions and state-owned enterprises, which are also obliged to use the codes to measure BBBEE compliance when choosing suppliers, granting licences or making concessions.

Therefore, when companies are participating in a public procurement process, the higher their BBBEE rating, the higher their competitive edge will be in the tendering process.

9.2 Obtaining Foreign Worker Permits for Skilled Workers

In 2015 South Africa enacted new immigration laws which have made it more difficult for companies to hire foreign workers in certain circumstances. There are two types of visas that apply: the critical skills work visa and the general work permit. The South African government has acknowledged that in order to advance national interest, it needs to be easier for foreign workers with critical skills required for South Africa's economy to be granted permits to work in the country. Critical skills visas apply to a wide range of professionals in fields such as engineering, construction, agriculture and financial services.

This visa can be applied for without a formal job offer, and takes three months with minimal paper work. However, for companies wanting to employ foreign workers who do not fall within a critical skill set, the application procedure is particularly onerous. Prior to even submitting an application for a general work visa (which can only be applied for from the applicant's country of origin), the prospective employer is required to apply to South Africa's Department of Labour for a certificate which confirms, among many things, that despite having conducted a diligent search, the prospective employer has been unable to find a suitable candidate with qualifications or skills and experience equivalent to those of the applicant.

Once this has been granted the visa is supposed takes two to three months to issue, but delays are regular. It is therefore a highly extensive and costly process required for employers and potential foreign employees to obtain this type of visa.

9.3 Visa/Travel Restrictions

Citizens of most North and South American states, European states and African states are not required to obtain a visa for a visit lasting up to 90 days to South Africa.

Citizens of most Asian countries are not required to obtain a visa for a visit lasting up to 30 days. Chinese and Russian citizens require visas. Changes to South Africa's visa regime which came in to force in 2014, included requirements that persons applying for a South African tourism visa must submit biometric data to the South African embassy they applied at, which means all applications had to be made in person.

Furthermore, any adults travelling with minor children had to have an unabridged birth certificate for that minor child and proof of consent from both of the child's parents for that child to travel.

These have been amended that foreigners who have applied for a South African visa can now do this via postal application or have a travel agency do it for them, and that they are no longer required to carry an unabridged birth certificate for their minor children.

Source: Government websites, Fitch Solutions

10. Risks

10.1 Sovereign Credit Ratings

Rating (Outlook)Rating Date
Baa3 (stable)09/06/2017
Standard & Poor'sBB+ (stable)24/11/2017
Fitch RatingsBB+ (stable)15/06/2018

Source: Moody's, Standard & Poor's, Fitch Ratings

10.2 Competitiveness and Efficiency Indicators

World Ranking
Ease of Doing Business Index
Ease of Paying Taxes Index
Logistics Performance Index
Corruption Perception Index
IMD World Competitiveness52/6353/6353/63

Source: World Bank, IMD, Transparency International

10.3 Fitch Solutions Risk Indices

World ranking
Economic Risk Index Rank70/202
Short-Term Economic Risk Score50
Long-Term Economic Risk Score 58.6 57.558.3
Political Risk Index Rank107/202
Short-Term Political Risk Score 61 5965.4
Long-Term Political Risk Score 63.4 61.361.3
Operational Risk Index Rank90/201
Operational Risk Score 53.3 52.751.3

Source: Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: August 20, 2018

10.4 Fitch Solutions Risk Summary


Given South Africa's close links with the global economy, the country remains heavily exposed to the external environment. South Africa's current account deficit remains under pressure, and a potential decline in capital flows could make the financing of the shortfall a challenge over the medium term. Meanwhile, a combination of low commodity prices and a challenging operating environment will keep growth tepid in the near term and a high level of guarantees to state-owned enterprises (SOEs) will continue to act as a headwind to fiscal consolidation. That said, the threat of a major economic crisis will remain limited given the strength and independence of the country's core institutions.


South Africa remains one of the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) outperformers in terms of the overall operating risks which businesses will face. The country's main strengths come from the Trade and Investment and Logistics Risks pillars, where the country receives it highest scores. Factors such as the sheer size of the country's total trade turnover and total inward FDI stock demonstrate that it is clearly one of the region's economic powerhouses. This is further supported by its highly developed and stable banking sector and financial markets, comparatively efficient taxation system and independent judiciary. South Africa's transport infrastructure is also one of the most developed in the SSA region, which lowers overall operating costs. The country's performance is less competitive on the labour and crime and security fronts, with high labour costs, risks of widespread strike action and very high crime levels being major deterrents for investors. Additionally, South Africa's operating profile has come under significant threat from rising levels of corruption and fiscal slippages over the past decade. Since President Ramaphosa’s appointment in February 2018, business-friendly rhetoric and a number of personnel changes have boosted investor sentiment.

Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

10.5 Fitch Solutions Political & Economic Risk Indices 

Graph: South Africa short term political risk index
Graph: South Africa short term political risk index
Graph: South Africa long term political risk index
Graph: South Africa long term political risk index
Graph: South Africa short term economic risk index
Graph: South Africa short term economic risk index
Graph: South Africa long term economic risk index
Graph: South Africa long term economic risk index

100 = Lowest risk, 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Economic and Political Risk Indices
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

10.6 Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index

Operational RiskLabour Market RiskTrade and Investment RiskLogistics RiskCrime and Security Risk
South Africa Score51.3 49.8 57.455.8
Southern Africa Average42.1 4141.9 41.1 44.6
Southern Africa Position (out of 13) 3 3 2 28
SSA Average34.5 38.3 35.3 32.5 32.0
SSA Position (out of 48) 3 6 2 2 13
Global Average49.7 49.8 50.0 49.3 49.9
Global Position (out of 201)90 104 69 67122

100 = Lowest risk, 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index

Graph: South Africa vs global and regional averages
Graph: South Africa vs global and regional averages
Operational Risk Index
Labour Market Risk Index
Trade and Investment Risk IndexLogistics Risk IndexCrime and Secruity Risk Index
South Africa51.349.857.455.842.1
Regional Averages
Emerging Markets Averages46.848.047.545.846.0
Global Markets Averages49.749.850.049.349.9

100 = Lowest risk, 0 = Highest risk
Source: Fitch Solutions Operational Risk Index
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

11. Hong Kong Connection

11.1 Hong Kong’s Trade with South Africa

Graph: Major export commodities to South Africa (2017)
Graph: Major export commodities to South Africa (2017)
Graph: Major import commodities from South Africa (2017)
Graph: Major import commodities from South Africa (2017)
Graph: Merchandise exports to South Africa
Graph: Merchandise exports to South Africa
Graph: Merchandise imports from South Africa
Graph: Merchandise imports from South Africa

Official Exchange Rate HK$/US$, average
7.76 (2013)
7.75 (2014)
7.75 (2015)
7.76 (2016)
7.79 (2017)
Source: Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department, Fitch Solutions
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

Growth rate (%)
Number of South African residents visiting Hong Kong65,422-1.6
Number of South Africans residing in Hong KongN/A


Growth rate (%)
Number of African residents visiting Hong Kong142,512-11.6

Source: Hong Kong Tourism Board
Date last reviewed: August 21, 2018

11.2 Commercial Presence in Hong Kong

Growth rate (%)
Number of South African companies in Hong Kong 15N/A
- Regional headquarters 0
- Regional offices 5
- Local offices 10

Source: HKTDC

11.3 Treaties and agreements between Hong Kong and South Africia

Hong Kong and South Africa concluded Comprehensive Double Taxation Agreements in 2015, these measures will be effective from 2016/2017 tax year. This the first income tax treaty Hong Kong has with a jurisdiction in Africa.

11.4 Chamber of Commerce (or Related Organisations) in Hong Kong

South African Chamber of Commerce of Hong Kong
Address: 18/F, Wing Hing Commercial Building, 16 Sutherland Street, Sheung Wan, Hong Kong
Email: president@sacchk.com
Tel: (852) 2799 2332

South African Consulate General in Hong Kong
Address: Room 1906-08, 19/F, Central Plaza, 18 Harbour Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong
General Enquiries: info@sacg.hk
Consular Section: consular@sacg.hk
Trade and Economics: satrade@dtihk.org.hk
Tel: (852) 3926 4300
Fax: (852) 2890 1975

Source: www.sacg.hk

11.5 Visa Requirements for Hong Kong Residents

People travelling on a Hong Kong passport do not need a visa to visit South Africa for 30 days or less.

Content provided by Picture: Fitch Solutions – BMI Research